Computers process data at an incredibly fast rate, and this can lead to system overload and slow performance. Interrupt and spooling are two techniques that help computers manage their workload and respond to events in real-time. In this article, we will delve into these concepts and how they work together to make computer systems faster and more efficient.

What is an Interrupt?

An interrupt is a signal that tells the computer to stop its current task and execute another task instead. Interrupts allow the computer to respond to events in real-time, such as a mouse click or a key press. Without interrupts, the computer would have to continuously check for events, leading to slower performance and reduced efficiency.

Types of Interrupts

There are two main types of interrupts: hardware and software interrupts. Hardware interrupts are triggered by external devices such as a mouse, keyboard, or printer. Software interrupts are generated by the operating system or an application program to request a service from the CPU.

How Interrupts Work

When an interrupt is triggered, the CPU stops its current task and saves its state. The CPU then executes the interrupt handler, which is a small program that handles the interrupt. Once the interrupt handler has finished executing, the CPU returns to the previous task and restores its state.

Benefits of Interrupts

Interrupts allow a computer to respond to events in real-time, improving system performance and reducing latency. They also allow for more efficient use of system resources and enable the computer to multitask effectively.

What is Spooling?

Spooling is a technique used by computer systems to improve performance and efficiency. Spooling stands for Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On-line and refers to the process of queuing jobs for execution.

Types of Spooling

There are two main types of spooling: disk spooling and memory spooling. Disk spooling involves storing jobs on a hard disk, while memory spooling involves storing jobs in RAM.

How Spooling Works

When a job is sent to the printer, it is first spooled to a disk or memory. The spooler then sends the job to the printer in the background, allowing the user to continue working on other tasks. This allows the computer to manage its workload more efficiently, improving performance and reducing the risk of system overload.

Benefits of Spooling

Spooling improves system performance by allowing the computer to manage its workload more efficiently. It also reduces the risk of system overload and improves the user experience by allowing the user to continue working on other tasks while the computer performs background tasks.



(a) Write are the functions of operating systems? write a note on multi programmed operating systems ?

(b) Distinguish between client server and peer to peer model of distributed systems .


(a) With a Neat Sketch, Describe the services that an Operating System provides to users, processes and other systems.

(b) What is meant by Storage Structure? Discuss Storage Hierarchy.

(c) Write the Advantages and Disadvantages of using the same system call interface for manipulating both Files and Devices.


(a) What are the criteria for evaluating the CPU scheduling algorithms? Why do we need it?

(b) Define process. Explain various steps involved in change of a process state with process state neat transition diagram.


(a) What is synchronization? Explain how semaphores can be used to deal with n-process critical problem.

(b) Define a thread. Give the benefits of multithreading. What resources are used when a thread is created?


(a) How dose deadlock avoidance differ from deadlock prevention? Write about deadlock avoidance algorithm in detail.

(b) Different between external fragmentation and internal fragmentation. How to solve the fragmentation using paging?


(a) What is the purpose of paging the page table? Consider the following page reference string 1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5 for a memory with three frames. How many page faults would LRU and FIFO replacement algorithm?

(b) What are the disadvantages of single contiguous memory allocation? Explain.


(a) Briefly explain about single-level, two-level and three Structured directories.

(b) What is disk scheduling? Explain the C-SCAN scheduling by giving an example.


(a) Interrupt and spooling.

(b) UNIX file system.

(c) Program and system threats.

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