Storage Structure

Storage structure refers to the way in which data is stored and organized within a computer system. It involves the use of different storage media, such as hard disks and memory, to store and retrieve data. The storage hierarchy is a model that describes the different levels of storage used by a computer system. It ranging from the fastest and most expensive storage to the slowest and least expensive.

Storage Hierarchy

The storage hierarchy is organized in such a way that each level provides a different balance between speed, cost and capacity. The fastest and most expensive storage is located at the top of the hierarchy, while the slowest and least expensive storage is located at the bottom.

The storage hierarchy typically consists of the following levels:

  1. Registers: Registers are the fastest type of storage in a computer system, but they are also the smallest. Registers are used to hold data that the CPU needs to access quickly, such as instructions and data being processed.
  2. Cache Memory: Cache memory is a small amount of high-speed memory that is used to temporarily store frequently accessed data. Cache memory is faster than main memory, but it is also more expensive.
  3. Main Memory (RAM): Main memory, also known as random access memory (RAM), is the primary storage used by a computer system. RAM is larger than cache memory, but it is also slower.
  4. Virtual Memory: Virtual memory is a technique used by computer systems to extend the amount of available memory by using hard disk space. Virtual memory allows programs to use more memory than is physically available in the computer.
  5. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used to store data and programs that are not currently being used by the computer system. Examples of secondary storage include hard disks, solid-state drives, and optical disks.
  6. Tertiary Storage: Tertiary storage is used for long-term storage of data that is not frequently accessed. Examples of tertiary storage include tape drives and archival storage systems.

The storage hierarchy is organized in such a way that data is first stored in the fastest and most expensive storage, such as registers and cache memory, and then moved to slower and less expensive storage as needed. This allows the computer system to access data quickly when needed, while also providing a large amount of storage space for less frequently used data.



(a) Write are the functions of operating systems? write a note on multi programmed operating systems ?

(b) Distinguish between client server and peer to peer model of distributed systems .


(a) With a Neat Sketch, Describe the services that an Operating System provides to users, processes and other systems.

(b) What is meant by Storage Structure? Discuss Storage Hierarchy.

(c) Write the Advantages and Disadvantages of using the same system call interface for manipulating both Files and Devices.


(a) What are the criteria for evaluating the CPU scheduling algorithms? Why do we need it?

(b) Define process. Explain various steps involved in change of a process state with process state neat transition diagram.


(a) What is synchronization? Explain how semaphores can be used to deal with n-process critical problem.

(b) Define a thread. Give the benefits of multithreading. What resources are used when a thread is created?


(a) How dose deadlock avoidance differ from deadlock prevention? Write about deadlock avoidance algorithm in detail.

(b) Different between external fragmentation and internal fragmentation. How to solve the fragmentation using paging?


(a) What is the purpose of paging the page table? Consider the following page reference string 1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5 for a memory with three frames. How many page faults would LRU and FIFO replacement algorithm?

(b) What are the disadvantages of single contiguous memory allocation? Explain.


(a) Briefly explain about single-level, two-level and three Structured directories.

(b) What is disk scheduling? Explain the C-SCAN scheduling by giving an example.


(a) Interrupt and spooling.

(b) UNIX file system.

(c) Program and system threats.

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