Operator overloading is a feature in programming languages that allows you to define custom behaviors for built-in operators (e.g., +, -, *, /) when applied to user-defined objects or data types. It enables you to create more intuitive and natural syntax for your classes, making them behave similar to built-in types. The theory and rules of operator overloading vary depending on the programming language

Rules for operator overloading in c++:

Operator overloading in C++ allows you to define the behavior of operators for user-defined types. It enables you to use standard C++ operators like ‘+’, ‘-‘, ‘==’, ‘<<‘, etc., with objects of your custom classes. This feature enhances the readability and ease of use of your code. To implement operator overloading in C++, you need to follow certain rules-

  1. Syntax of Overloading Operators: Operator overloading is achieved by defining a special member function for the operator you want to overload. The function must have the operator keyword followed by the operator symbol. It is a regular member function with the exception that it operates on the user-defined type and takes one or two parameters, depending on the operator being overloaded.
  2. Use of Member vs. Non-Member Functions: Operator overloading can be implemented using either member functions or non-member (friend) functions. If you overload an operator as a member function, the left-hand operand must be an object of the class to which the member function belongs. If you choose to overload it as a non-member function, you can have more flexibility in choosing the operands’ types. Friend functions are generally used for binary operators like ‘+’, ‘-‘, etc., when the left operand is not a class object.
  3. Number of Operands: The number of operands the overloaded operator takes depends on the type of operator being overloaded. Unary operators (e.g., ++, –) require one operand, while binary operators (e.g., +, -, *, /) require two operands.
  4. Return Type: The return type of the overloaded operator depends on the operator’s functionality. For example, if you are overloading the addition operator ‘+’, it should return the type that represents the result of the addition.
  5. Operator Precedence and Associativity: When overloading an operator, you do not have control over the operator’s precedence or associativity. The existing precedence and associativity of the operator remain unchanged.
  6. Const-Correctness: It is a good practice to provide both const and non-const versions of overloaded operators. This allows you to use the overloaded operators with const objects as well as non-const objects.
  7. Overloading Restrictions: Certain operators cannot be overloaded, including the conditional operator (? :), the member selection operator (. and ->), the scope resolution operator (::), and the sizeof operator.
  8. Use of Friends for Binary Operators: For binary operators, you might need to use friend functions to access private members of the class. For example, in the case of the ‘+’ operator, if you want to access private members of both operands, you should declare the ‘+’ function as a friend in your class.

Example of operator overloading-


#include <iostream>

class Counter {
    int count;

    Counter() : count(0) {}

    // Overloading the prefix increment operator (++count)
    Counter& operator++() {
        return *this;

    // Overloading the postfix increment operator (count++)
    Counter operator++(int) {
        Counter temp = *this;
        return temp;

    int getCount() const {
        return count;

int main() {
    Counter counter;

    std::cout << "Initial count: " << counter.getCount() << std::endl;

    // Using the prefix increment operator
    std::cout << "After prefix increment: " << counter.getCount() << std::endl;

    // Using the postfix increment operator
    std::cout << "After postfix increment: " << counter.getCount() << std::endl;

    return 0;

Running the code will produce the following output:

Initial count: 0
After prefix increment: 1
After postfix increment: 2


Q1: What is operator overloading in C++?

A1: Operator overloading in C++ allows you to define custom behaviors for the standard C++ operators when used with user-defined data types. This means you can make operators like +, -, *, /, etc., work with your own classes, enabling more natural and intuitive syntax.

Q2: Can I change the precedence or associativity of an operator through overloading?

A2: No, operator overloading doesn’t allow you to change the precedence or associativity of operators. The existing precedence and associativity rules remain unchanged.

Q3: Can I create new operators in C++?

A3: No, you cannot create entirely new operators in C++. You can only overload existing operators.

Q4: How do I decide whether to overload an operator as a member function or a friend function?

A4: If the operator requires access to private members of the class, it is generally better to overload it as a friend function. Otherwise, for operators that only require access to public members, overloading as a member function is preferred.

Q5: Are there any guidelines or best practices for operator overloading?

A5: Yes, some guidelines include:

  • Overload operators when the operation makes intuitive sense for your class.
  • Maintain consistency with the standard behavior of the overloaded operator.
  • Avoid overloading operators in a way that might cause confusion or unexpected behavior

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