CSMA-CD : P-persistent and Non-persistent CSMA-CD

CSMA-CD, which stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, represents a fundamental network access control method deployed in Ethernet networks. Its primary purpose is to manage the transmission of data packets among multiple devices sharing a common communication medium. CSMA-CD operates by ensuring that devices intending to transmit data first listen to the communication medium to discern its availability. If the medium is found to be idle, indicating that no other devices are currently transmitting, the device can proceed with its transmission. However, should multiple devices attempt to transmit simultaneously and their signals collide on the communication medium, CSMA-CD employs collision detection mechanisms to identify and resolve these conflicts.

In the event of a collision, CSMA-CD initiates a backoff and retransmission procedure. The devices involved in the collision cease transmission and enter a backoff period, during which they wait for a random duration before attempting to retransmit their data. This randomized backoff mechanism helps mitigate the likelihood of recurring collisions, thereby promoting more efficient and reliable data transmission. While CSMA-CD was particularly prevalent in the early days of Ethernet networking, especially in shared-medium configurations like Ethernet hubs, its importance remains significant for understanding foundational networking principles and collision avoidance strategies, even as switched Ethernet networks have become more widespread.

CSMA-CD is a network access control method used in Ethernet networks to regulate data transmission. It has two variations: p-persistent CSMA-CD and non-persistent CSMA-CD.

P-Persistent CSMA-CD:

  1. Carrier Sense: Before attempting to transmit data, a device using p-persistent CSMA-CD listens to the communication medium to check if it’s busy. If the medium is idle, the device proceeds to the next step.
  2. Persistence Mechanism: In p-persistent CSMA-CD, the device determines its transmission probability based on a parameter ‘p’. If the medium is idle, the device generates a random number between 0 and 1. If this number is less than or equal to ‘p’, the device transmits its data immediately. If not, it defers its transmission and listens again after a short interval.
  3. Collision Detection: If a collision occurs (i.e., another device starts transmitting simultaneously), the colliding devices detect the collision and stop transmission. They enter a backoff period and attempt to retransmit their data after waiting for a random amount of time.

Non-Persistent CSMA-CD:

  1. Carrier Sense: Similar to p-persistent CSMA-CD, a device using non-persistent CSMA-CD listens to the communication medium to determine if it’s busy. If the medium is idle, the device proceeds.
  2. Non-Persistence Mechanism: In non-persistent CSMA-CD, if the medium is idle, the device waits for a random amount of time before attempting to transmit. This random wait time helps reduce the likelihood of collisions occurring when multiple devices sense the medium to be idle simultaneously.
  3. Transmission Attempt: After the random wait time, if the medium is still idle, the device attempts to transmit its data. If a collision occurs, the devices involved detect the collision and follow the same collision detection and backoff procedure as described in p-persistent CSMA-CD.

P-Persistent VS Non-Persistent CSMA-CD

FeatureP-Persistent CSMA-CDNon-Persistent CSMA-CD
Transmission ProbabilityDetermines transmission probability ‘p’ based on parameterDoes not use a predetermined transmission probability
Random BackoffDoes not employ random backoff before transmissionUses random backoff before transmission
Immediate TransmissionMay transmit data immediately if ‘p’ condition is metWaits for random backoff time before attempting to transmit
Collision AvoidanceRelies on ‘p’ value to adjust probability of collisionRelies on random backoff to reduce probability of collision
ComplexityRequires parameter tuning and calculation for ‘p’ valueSimplified, no need for parameter tuning
EfficiencyHigher potential for immediate transmission, potentially higher throughputLower probability of immediate transmission due to random backoff, potentially lower throughput
Collision HandlingSame collision detection and backoff mechanism as non-persistentSame collision detection and backoff mechanism as p-persistent
Common Use CasesSuitable for networks with varying traffic loadsSuitable for networks with relatively low traffic loads
Outlining the differences between p-persistent and non-persistent CSMA-CD.
And get notified everytime we publish a new blog post.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *