In C++, a constructor is a special member function that is automatically called when an object of a class is created. It is used to initialize the object’s data members and perform any necessary setup operations. Constructors are crucial for creating objects with proper initial states and for encapsulating the object initialization process.

Here’s the basic syntax for a constructor in C++:

class MyClass {
    // Constructor
    MyClass() {
        // Initialization code here

Main points of Constructor

Here are the main points to understand about constructors in C++:

  1. Purpose and Initialization:
    • Constructors are used to initialize the data members of a class when an object is created.
    • They ensure that the object starts in a valid and well-defined state.
    • Constructors are automatically called when an object is created, and they have the same name as the class.
  2. Types of Constructors:
    • Default Constructor: Takes no arguments and is used when an object is created without explicit initialization. If no constructor is defined, the compiler provides a default constructor.
    • Parameterized Constructor: Accepts arguments and allows you to provide initial values for the object’s data members.
    • Copy Constructor: Creates a new object by copying the values of an existing object of the same class.
    • Move Constructor: Creates a new object by moving the resources (e.g., memory, ownership) of an existing object.
  3. Constructor Overloading:
    • Like regular functions, constructors can be overloaded. This means you can define multiple constructors with different parameter lists.
  4. Initialization Lists:
    • Initialization lists are used in constructors to initialize the data members before the body of the constructor is executed.
    • Initialization lists are more efficient than initializing members inside the constructor body.
  5. Default Arguments:
    • Constructors can have default arguments, just like regular functions.
    • This allows you to create objects with different levels of initialization.
  6. Order of Execution:
    • Base class constructors are called before derived class constructors.
    • The order of initialization is determined by the order of declaration in the class.
  7. Explicit and Implicit Constructors:
    • Constructors that can be called with a single argument (not counting the object itself) can act as implicit conversion operators.
    • To prevent unintentional implicit conversions, use the explicit keyword before the constructor declaration.
  8. Destructors:
    • A destructor is a special member function that is automatically called when an object goes out of scope or is explicitly deleted.
    • It’s used to perform cleanup tasks such as releasing resources (e.g., memory) that the object acquired during its lifetime.
  9. Inheritance and Constructors:
    • Derived class constructors automatically call the base class constructor.
    • If the base class constructor with arguments is not explicitly called in the derived class constructor’s initialization list, the default constructor of the base class is called.

Example of constructor

Here’s an example of a constructor in C++:

#include <iostream>

class MyClass {
    // Constructor
    MyClass(int value) {
        this->value = value;
        std::cout << "Constructor called with value: " << value << std::endl;

    void displayValue() {
        std::cout << "Value: " << value << std::endl;

    int value;

int main() {
    // Creating an object of MyClass with constructor call
    MyClass obj(42);

    // Calling a member function to display the value

    return 0;

In this example, the class MyClass has a constructor that takes an integer parameter value. When an object of MyClass is created using MyClass obj(42);, the constructor is automatically called with the value 42. The constructor initializes the private member value and prints a message indicating the constructor call.

The output of the program will be:

Constructor called with value: 42
Value: 42

Here, the constructor sets up the initial state of the object by assigning the provided value to the private member variable. This is a simple illustration of how constructors work in C++.

Constructors play a crucial role in ensuring that objects are properly initialized and in a valid state when created. They are a fundamental concept in C++ object-oriented programming, contributing to the language’s ability to create robust and well-structured classes and objects.

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